The sun is the main energy source on Earth, and the sun can be directly converted into electricity using solar panels.Electricity has become an indispensable part of life.It provides machines that most of us use every day.So,What is a solar panel?If you can create your own?In this article,We will show you an easy way to build your own functional solar panels.Solar panels are usually composed of six (6)Component is PV (photovoltaic)Batteries or solar cells that generate electricity,Glass covering and protecting solar cells,Frame providing stiffness,Back panel for solar cell placement,The junction box connected by the wire ring is closed,And as an encapsulation agent for the adhesive.Since most people do not have access to equipment to make solar panels,It is important to note and understand these six components so that anyone can plan the required materials to create a do-it-Yourself or at home-Make solar panels.The materials needed for how to make a solar panel must be purchased locally or online and should not exceed the cost of a brand new solar panel or will not take a long time to build.1.)The first thing to consider when building your own solar panels is solar cells.Photovoltaic (PV)A battery or solar cell converts visible light into electricity.One (1)However, the solar cells are not enough to generate a lot of power, just like the microbot at Baymax (Hero 6)Useful only when combined as a group.This basic unit generates DC (Direct current)voltage of 0.5 to 1 volt, although this is reasonable,The voltage is still too small for most applications.Generate useful DC voltage,Solar cells are connected in series and then encapsulated in modules to make solar panels.If a cell generates 0.5 V, and connected to another cell in series,These two cells should be able to produce 1 V, and then they can be called a module.A typical module usually consists of 28 to 36 cells.A 28-The unit module should be able to generate about 14 volts (28 x 0.5 = 14VDC)This is enough to charge 12 v battery or power 12 v device.Connecting two or more solar cells requires you to have a basic understanding of the series and parallel connection, which is similar to connecting the battery and can constitute a battery storage system.There are two most common solar cells available on the market;Single crystal cell and multiple cell.These two can have the same size,156mm x 156mm,But the main difference is efficiency.It is important to purchase additional cells as a backup in case you fail on some cell I.e.bad solder,broken cell,scratched,etc.Single crystal silicon solar cells are usually black and octagonal.This type of solar cell is made of the highest and purest grade silicon, making them expensive.But they are the most effective of all types of solar cells, almost always the choice of solar contractors, when space is an important factor to achieve the power they want to achieve, solar system design based on their consideration.The polycrystal photovoltaic cells are characterized by blue and rectangular shapes.These cells are manufactured in a simpler process, reducing the purity of the silicon content and also reducing the efficiency of the final product.Generally,Single crystal silicon cells are more effective than polycrystal cells, but this does not mean that single crystal silicon cells perform and output more power than polycrystal cells.The efficiency of the solar cell is related to the size of the battery, and each solar panel or battery is evaluated for efficiency according to standard tests when manufacturing.This level is usually a percentage and common value range from 15% to 20%.2.)The glass protects the photovoltaic cells while allowing the best sunlight to pass through.These are usually reversed-Reflective material.Tempered glass is the choice of materials today, even for unknown and new manufacturers, although there are still those using flat glass in their solar panels.Tempered glass is made by chemical or thermal means, many times more expensive than flat glass, but the price made today is reasonable and cost-effective.The flat glass produces sharp and long pieces when broken, instead of tempered glass, securely crushed in small pieces of impact,That's why they also call it safety glass.It should be noted that most amorphous solar panels use flat glass because of the way the panels are constructed.Tempered glass is used by manufacturers in the mass production of solar panels.In our DIY projectWe recommend the use of plexiglass, also known as acrylic glass, which is safer than ordinary glass from your local hardware store.It is a bit more expensive than regular glass, but weather-resistant and not easy to break.The plexiglass can also be screwed or glued to an easy frame.3.)The frame is usually a solar module that provides structure and stiffness by anodized aluminum.These aluminum frames have also been designed to be compatible with most solar installation systems and ground equipment for easy and safe installation on the roof or ground.The frame in the factory-The built-in solar panel is usually the aluminum part, and the solar panel is inserted on all sides.Think of it as a skeleton rectangular frame.Solar panels consist of 4 other components and are layered and laminated from top to bottom in the following order;Tempered glass,Top Package,Solar cells,Bottom package,Then the back panel.In our DIY solar panels,We will use a wooden frame and end-The result will be a similar picture of the frame that is solar cells glued to a non-Conductive board,Glass with top cover of organic glass,And wooden parts as frame and back panel.4.)The back panel is a plastic film layer on the back of the module.This is the only layer that protects the module from unsafe DC voltage.The main function of the back panel is to isolate and protect the handling procedures from impact and provide the safest,efficient,And reliable conductivity possible.The back panel will be a wooden plywood and the frame will be screwed on the top and both sides.It should be noted here that the perforated hard plate (Pegboard)Will be used to place and align photovoltaic cells, this Pegboard will sit on the top of the wooden back panel and be installed inside the wooden frame.5.)The junction box is where the terminal wires and bypass diodes are located and hidden.The terminal wire is basically a positive and negative wire based on the photovoltaic cell series connection, which can be connected to another solar panel,A charging controllerA battery systemOr inverter,Depending on the design of the system.The bypass diode is a protective mechanism that prevents power from returning to the solar panel when it is not producing power when it is at night.Junction boxes designed for the factory-Built-in solar panels are now available for purchase online, especially from China.If you don't have time,You can order online and wait for delivery, otherwise you can purchase regular electrical junction boxes from your local hardware store.The purpose of the junction box is to protect the terminal (Positive and negative terminals)from water,dust,And other elements.This is also two lines (Positive in red and negative in black)Will come from.The other end of these two wires can also be purchased online by using a photovoltaic accessory called MC4, or with a photovoltaic junction box for protection.6.)The packaging board prevents water and dirt from infiltrating into the solar module and acts as an impact-An absorber that protects photovoltaic cells.They have the ability to glue glass.the PV cells,Glue similar to the back plate, but stronger.The encapsulation agent is usually made of ethylene-Vinyl acetate or EVA, and use the laminating machine and process.Solar panel manufacturers properly seal and heal EVA sheets to solar panels using vacuum and large ovens.Most of us don't have the ability to do this, but many still try and fail while others have different levels of success.The package is a thin plastic sheet that usually fits on the top and bottom layers of the solar panel.The bottom package layer is the layer at the top of the back panel that actually places and supports solar cells.In our projectWe will use latex acrylic paint.This paint will not be applied to photovoltaic cells because when trying,The cell surface that will not result in equal distribution or application of liquid can reduce performance.The paint will be applied to the wooden frame,Wooden back panel,And to the Pegboard.This latex paint should be able to protect the wood from ultraviolet rays and better resist blistering and cracking timeouts.This paint,Water though-soluble,Can dry quickly and turn into water-resistant.