aluminum panels The McDonnell - Douglas MD-80

by:Carlos     2019-04-08
Retractable fuselage,Inherent in basic DC-9 design,Has described its plan.Leading to four-dimensional divergence,higher-Capacity version,Including the original-elongated DC-9-30 in the baseline series-10/14/15,Subsequent DC-9-40,And the last DC-9-50,The latter holds 49 more passengers than the twins-The original maximum value of Jet.The DC-9 itself,Built on the four tough design principles,simplicity,reliability,and low-cost,Was McDonald's-Best Douglas-Commercial aircraft for sale-so much so,in fact,It takes off or lands somewhere in the world every seven seconds.Serving more than 570 cities, about 6,050 daily flight,and by 1979,The collective fleet transported more than 1 billion passengers and recorded more than 18 million hours at nearly 99 hours-Percentage scheduling reliability rate.Its Pratt and Whitney JT8D engineThe most widely used power plants and numbers are more than 12,000 units,Not only provides DC for all versions of the propulsion thrust-9,But it also powered the Boeing 727.the Sud-Aviation SE.210 Super CaravelleBoeing 737,And Dassault-Mercure Breguet 100.Both the DC-The basic design of 9 and the JT8D vortex fan therefore provide the optimization,cost-On an effective platform, the base is larger-Ability successor,This needs to be equal to DC-9-30 scope ability,But more than DC-9-Economics of 50.Its fuselage,Does not reach its limit to be scalable,Lend yourself still higher-Capacity accommodation,But its barrier is a power device with enough thrust to maintain an acceptable payload,range,And the performance parameters of its operators.Based on the early,two-stage JT3D,This has powered 707 and DC-8,the JT8D,a low,one-to-A bypass than a fanFirst run in April 7,1961,In May 1 of the second year, it was the first time to reach the 707-meter sky.FAA certification in February 91963,as the 14,000 thrust-pound JT8D-1,It's already driven 727-100 before being hired by DC-9-10, then provided in several successive higher-Thrust version,The last one is 17,400 thrust-pound JT8D-17R.A new-Change generation,Provide applications for final DC-9 stretch and specify JT8D-109,Already one of the six demonstration power plants,single-Stage fan developed for NASA's quiet engine project,Running between 1972 and 1975,And its two versions have been recorded for more than 50 hours of modified DC-9-32.Further development of design,the 18,500 thrust-pound JT8D-209,Starting in 1974, two years later,Test flight at McDonald's-High class STOL Transport Douglas (AMST)In 1977.New though.At first, we also considered the super critical wing,the aircraft,For short-to medium-The scope of the department, which requires a higher proportion of climbing -?and-Down to the actual cruise profile,This new design cannot be fully utilized.The results of its benefits cannot prove its high development cost.Existing DC-9 wing,Extend and modify the root and tip high-lift devices,The required performance will be provided,economy,And range parameters.Several initial iterations,Mainly based on DC-9-50 and all have the ability to extend the fuselage higher,larger-area wings,And two modified turbine fans.Including the modification-stretched DC-9-50RS,the refan-Super stretch DC-9-50RSS,the DC-9-55,and the DC-9-60,while a DC-9QSF,For Japanese operators as namc ys-11 double turbine propeller replacement,mated a DC-9-There are 40, two, 18.000 thrust-pound JT8D-209 engine and one two-The bigger wings of the feet,Enable 114,000-The pound aircraft operates from 4,000-The foot track and 120 passengers.However,Cost constraints and design complexity determine a simple,The simpler version, incorporated into the longer fuselage,increased-area wings,and JT8D-209 turbofans,However, the cockpit is versatile with all previous DC-9 variants.Skip two DC-9-60 and DC-9-70 sequences,The final plane,designated DC-9-80-or DC-9 Super 80,More accurately reflect the scheduled inauguration of the year of service-It was launched on October 20,1977 received 27 companies and 13 selected orders from SwissairAustrian AirlinesSouthern AirlinesThere is also a letter of intent from Venice airlines LAV.All of this is the previous DC-9 operators.Imagine higher-Capacity supplement its DC-9 Higher body and replacement-cost tri-jets,It intends to provide services in mature markets where environmental and noise restrictions have been eliminated-Capacity equipment replacement,The aircraft provides a significantly smaller noise footprint,The larger range and capacity,And the lowest seats-The cost of miles for any comparable twin-jet.According to the time-President of Douglas AircraftJohn C.Brizendine,"In recent years

We have become keenly aware of the need to save energy,To protect the environment,And produce more and more economical and efficient aircraft.(The DC-9 Super 80)It is specially designed to meet the requirements of our industry for many years.These include environmental compatibility,Energy efficiency,Economic operation,And a spacious,Comfortable interior.McDonnell-Douglas boasted about the plane,"The DC-The 9 Super 80 is a mature design mixed with the low available-Risk technology to improve effectiveness,(but)Significant DC-Maintain reliability and reduce operating costs.Although it was based on this earlier-A generation of twins,However, it introduces several advanced features.Extended fuselage,By means of eight-The wing of the frame plug and a single-The frame is inserted at the end of it,Lead to 147.10-Total foot length,Increase the maximum capacity to 172,Or 33 DC-9-50 and an amazing 82 compared to the initial DC-9-10,And the production of the largest stretch commercial airliner by then.The forward,left,and aft,ventral,exits,All equipped with scalable stairsWas retained,but an aft,Left repair door,Only on the foot of the engine,Introduced.Aeritalia in NaplesItaly,Make the fuselage panel.A new,10.6-The center part of the foot and two-foot parallel-Chord prompt extension,Resulting in divergent DC for the third dimension-9 wing,yielded a 28-percent area,57-Percentage of fuel capacity,and 11-Percentage increase in efficiency.Measuring 107 feet,10 1/4 inches,the airfoil,with a 24-Sweep back its quarterly chords,a 9.62 aspect ratio,Three degrees and two sides,and a 1,239 square-foot area,It's made up of four-Wing accuracy-The processed skin panels have been transformed from 14,000-The pound ingot is 60 inch wide,15 inch long,And 30 inch thick McCook Reynolds Metal,Illinois.The all-metal,two-Spar structure,Cross-string with riveting,featured full-span,three-Leading slats with a new positioning,Intermediate setting to reduce takeoff resistance and increase the total weight of climbing performance at higher levels;larger,doubled-slotted,The posterior flap covers the span of 67%, reducing the stall of the aircraft;Three spoiler,Two of the outer layers can be used as flight and ground lifts;and ailerons.All but the latter is hydraulic,The wing itself is operated manually.The planworm fence under the wing ensures proper airflow.Providing 1,520 gallons of extra fuelIt also provides an increase-The area mainly carries Bay.The variable-incidence,electrically-Drive horizontal tail,spanning 40.2 feet,or 3.More than 6 feet DC-9-50,Features of the design t-Sister tab for tail configuration and spores-Elevator,And vertical fins,Render the entire plane at a height of 30.2 feet,Featured hydraulic-Drive the rudder.It had been 1.4 feet above DC-9-50's.It's Pratt and Whitney JT8D-209 turbofan,Install on both sides of the rear fuselage and keep the original target-Type thrust inverter,Is based on the core of early JT8D-9,But 49-Inch wide fan and advanced,low-Pressure compressor,producing 18,500 pounds thrust and an additional 750 pounds automatic power reserve (APR),Generated during engine-Conditions of loss.The larger-diameter,single-stage fan,Hot core parts that drive greater quality-bypassing air,Combined with more efficient air mixing of hot and cold outlet pipes,Added sound-absorbing materials for its cabin and surrounding housingMany improvements have been made,Including increasing thrust capacity;Higher bypass ratio-of 1:1.78 1 relative to the early jt8d:1;Lower export speed;an 11-Percentage decrease than fuel consumption;And a significantly smaller noise footprint than medium-range tri-The jet was supposed to be replaced.Use Weight-Cut Kefla-Reinforced aluminum honeycomb reinforcement, with a graphite cap and two upper and lower cowhide doors inside its nostrils outer barrel,the nacelle,21.1 feet long,was 4.5 feet longer than JT8D-9, thus presents engineering challenges relative to its installation in DC-9's,albeit longer,body.The DC-9 Super 80 retained hydraulic-retractable,tricycle,dual-wheeled,Cleveland landing gearWith Goodyear wheels,tires,And disc brakes;Hydro-Anti-slip device of Al Mk ia;Douglas performed air brake cooling.The nose wheel is manipulated to 27 degrees on both sides.While the Super 80 retains an ordinary pilot rated DC-9,However, it offers several advances in the cockpit,Including digital and flight guidance control systems designed by the Sri Lanka Flight System Department of the Sri Lanka company,Integrate the performance of the seven flight control subsystems into two identical digital computers;Cathode ray tube (CRT)displays;A digital fuel meter systema dial-a-flap system;And Category ia automatic and ability 50-The foot determines the height (DH)And the visual range of the runway 700 feet (RVR).The electronic performance management system, which was later introduced, provides automatic pitch and thrust to affect the optimal speed and fuel burning in the aircraft's climb,cruise,And drop profile.The 101-foot-long,"Wide View" cabinWide range of features,contoured,And the sound of carving-The treated ceiling is mixed with an overhead storage room that can be stored;Aluminum side wall panels carved in windows;Fluorescent lighting;a 19-inch aisle;and five-abreast,two-Three or three-two,Economy class seats,This reduces the number of seats in the middle by half traditionally with six-Final arrangement.Interior decoration,Unlike conservative,business-Appointed in bold mode and bright colors,Determined by operator and custom-Designed by Macdonald-Douglas's interior design team often travels to the country of the airline to absorb local culture and customs and then translate experience into regions-or country-Reflection pattern.Synthetic blends of wool and wool are standardized for use in seat covers and carpets.The configuration of class and seat is also different according to the operator.A 137-passenger,dual-Class arrangement,for instance,Including 12 four.In a first class seat of 38-Inch spacing and 125 five-The last economy class seat is 34-inch pitch,while single-The rating density includes 155 passengers at 32/33-inch pitch,167 charter seats at 30-inch pitch,Or up to 172 high-Density passengers,The latter can accommodate a single kitchen installation.Indoor noise reduction is achieved through the insulating blanket of the fabric-Enhance Mylar on fiberglass.Elongated DC-This paper introduces a new air circulation system for supercharging,Replacing cabin air at a greater frequency,Features of its drinking water system-Line heater in all of its water lines.An increased-Capacity auxiliary power unit (APU)Run the environmental control system on the ground.The longer fuselage of the aircraft significantly increases its lower-Deck luggage and cargo compartment volume,whose forward,center,And the stern contains 434, respectively,376,And 443 cubic feet.The DC-9-80 keep 80% DC-9-Main maintenance function of 50.Like everything before.shorter-Fuselage predecessorsThis plane is short-sector,rapid-turnaround,self-Enough operation from short,limited-Facilities Airport,With the increase of thrust,larger-area wings,self-Including stairs,Auxiliary power unit for environmental regulation and engine start-up,low-to-Ground section, convenient maintenance,loading,And maintenance,And the ability to operate two or more departments without the need to refuel.Most commandos only need luggage carts.The maximum structural payload is 40,112 pounds,the DC-9-81,Specified in its initial variant,had a 147,000-Total pounds,Although it was later increased to 149,500 pounds with uprated engine,And the maximum landing weight of 128,000 pounds.Its normal and maximum cruising speed is,respectively,Mach 0.76 and 0.80.Range,155 single-Cabin passengers and domestic reserveswas 1,564 nautical miles.Lead Engineering pilot by Douglas H.H."Knick" KnickerbockerProject Pilot John P.Laine,Virginia "Ginny" A, flight test engineer.Claire,the first DC-9 Super 80 and 909 th twins-Jet off the assembly line in Long Beach,On October 18, it took off from runway 30 of Long Beach Airport,1979 with call sign DACO 80-"Douglas Aircraft Company 80.Below 25-mile circular,Super water mode,the long,slender-Fuselage aircraft,For 13,Test Equipment of 100 pounds,Two successful ones-hour,50-minute basic-Before MacDonald landed, the motor test SOTY-Douglas flight operation facilities in YumaArizona,Where the chief engineering pilot came to a conclusion"The ground handling of the Super 80 is even more DC than other-9s.It also appears quite stable in flight

No fault with the new engine,The reverse thrust is very effective when landing

I believe the super 80 is a great plane that will meet all our expectations.The 1,085-hour,$36 million,three-Flight test plan,Including the first n1002 G prototype to fly in December 6,1979 and N1002W on February 29,1980,FAA certification 7 months lateron August 26,According to the correction of DC-Original type certificate for 9.First delivery launch customer Swissair in September 12,An earlier DC-9-15,-30,and -50 series,It was officially built from Zurich to Frankfurt in October 5,Be the quietest business-jet.Co-Launch customers Austrian AirlinesA dc fleet is also operating-9-30s and -50s,After 21 days, the first revenue service was formally established,on October 26,From Vienna to ZurichFor McDonald's-Designated plan by Douglasthe DC-9-80,or DC-9 Super 80,Re-marked as "MD-80" in 1983,Its initial version is called "MD-81.Baseline for development Pratt and Whitney JT8D-209 engine,Led to a quarrel,20,000 thrust-pound -217,Enhanced additional version,The origin of this is the requirement of 1979 short takeoff and landing (STOL)The plane will operate in Japan's domestic market.A then-Projection iteration,designated DC-9 Super 80SF,Will have been mated DC-9-The body of 40 and DC-9-Wings and engines 80But higher-thrust JT8D-217,Suitable for existing body size,Most of the required performance will be provided.Resultantly,The second variantdesignated MD-82 and first announced in April 161979,Selected uprated,20,000 thrust-Automatic power reserve of 850 pounds of the pound turbine fan,a 44,024-pound payload,and a 2,050-There are 155 passengers within miles.The first flight was in January 8,1981,Six months later, FAA certification was received.on July 31,At the first 147,000-Maximum takeoff weight of pounds,Although the 1982 option for JT8D-The engine was further increased to 149,500 pounds,Cause Still-Higher payload and range capabilities.Republic Airlinesthe July 1,1978 merger of North and South Airlines,Is the start-up customer of the versionHas always been the largest DC in the world-Series 9 operator-10s,-30s,and -50s,It's eight MD-82 s was eventually added.The variant is involved in two unique programs.The first one,On 1982 of October,Innovative rental of 20 MD-82 s to American Airlines,MacDonald-Douglas agreed to cover maintenance and training costs.This allowed 67 aircraft to be purchased in February 1984,Attractive prices and low penalties for cancellation,Will be delivered in 10 to 25 fuselage blocksEach block is confirmed 24 months before the target delivery date.Become the pillar of American short distance-to medium-Convenient hub connection between Chicago and Dallasthe aircraft,With 142 first and economy class passengers,Final number 234,The largest in the world,single-Types outside the former Soviet Socialist Republic.The second innovation transaction took place in April 12,1985,When the Shanghai Aviation Industry Corporation agrees to permit-build 25 MD-82 s in the People's Republic of China.An extended-Scope successor,designated MD-83 and first announced in January 311982,The introduction is still higher-rated engines.The JT8D-219,rated at 21,000 pounds of thrustLow selection redesign-Pressure turbine,a new high-Pressure turbine,Aerofoil for aerodynamic improvement,a five-Increased thrust percentage,and a two-The percentage of fuel combustion is reduced.The first flight was in December 17,1984,the twin-jet,with a 160,000-Maximum takeoff weight of pounds,offered a 2,502-Miles of sailing,Obtained by means of 1,160 gallons extra,Next deck-Install the refill tank.Finnair,Once operated DC-9-14/15,-40,and -50,As the startup customer of the version,The longest running time,nonstop MD-80 flights in November 141985,When it covers 3,406-Montreal and Helsinki within 7 hours26 minutes.Transwede,of Sweden,First revenue generation-earning trans-Atlantic flights to Ft from Sweden.Lauderdale stands in the middle of Oslo and Gandel.To provide a lower-Capacity correspondence is more suitable for reduction-Demand Department,And compete more effectively with 737-300 Boeing designed for this marketMcDonnell-Douglas proposed the first one.and only,dimensionally-Divergent variants,the MD-87,From its early evolution.DC-The study of 9 Super XX is 100-to 120-Jetliner driven by Pratt and Whitney JT8D-200 series or CFM International CFM56-3 turbo fans and 110,000-to 120,000-Heavy pounds.The variant,with a 16.5-Short-footed fuselage,A new feature,130.5-The total length of the foot and a 38,726-Maximum pound payloadOr same as DC-9-50's.Because the moment of decline-Short body arm,Large vertical axis control requirements-area,ten-Higher fins in inches,Visible extension above the traditional t-The mating point of the tail leads to a new,31.2-Overall height of feet.It also introduced low-Tow flap hinges and ball covers,Rounded cowl between the fuselage and the engine tower,and a reduced-drag,blade-Tail cone.Originally driven by 20,000 thrust-pound JT8D-217B,But then the lower fuel consumption was modified-217C version,the MD-87 had a 2,372-130 passengers and domestic reserves on the voyageAlthough extra,MD-Type 83 fuel tanks increase this to 2 at lower holding,833 miles.First in the sky of December 4,1986,It received the FAA Type Certificate on October 21 of the following year,It was established in December 17 in cooperation with Austrian Airlines flying from Vienna to Zagreb.The last,And the most advanced,In five versionsthe MD-88,The original body size was re-introduced and announced on January 23,1986 The customer sets the initial order to model 80 after launching the Delta Line.21,000 thrust-pound JT8D-219 turbofans,the version,Most closely based on MD-82,Increase the composite to reduce the weight of the structure,A new cabin with a wider aisle and a modern overhead storage room,And an advanced,glass cockpit,The latter is a system of electronic flight instruments (EFIS),Flight Management System (FMS),And inertial reference system (IRS).It keeps MD-87's blade-Tail cone.The first flight was in August 15,1987 and FAA-Four months later, certified in December 9.the MD-88 signed a scheduled service with Delta on January 5,Or 22 years after it ran the world's first passenger-Carry service-Series 14 in December 81965.It also operates a stretched DC-9-30 and the MD-82.The 1,000th MD-Delivered on March 29,1992,1997 by December1,150 of airlines serve 60 airlines around the world.The design,Advanced part of success,re-engined MD-After 90 counterparts and Boeing's own next generation of 737 families, manufacturers bought McDonald's-Douglas,But to be the best-selling pure-Jet commercial aircraft,Sales over DC-8,the Super DC-8,the DC-9 itself,the DC-10,the MD-11,the MD-90,and the MD-95/717,The last delivery took place on December 21,1999,when an MD-83 transferred to TWA,End twenty years of production.Combined with the original sales volume of 976,short-fuselage DC-9,It's the third best-selling twin-Boeing 737 and jet after Airbus industry320 family,And Collective 2,167 have been built.
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